I published a podcast episode 4 hours ago via Anchor, and while it already appeared on Spotify and Apple Podcasts — it did not appear on Google Podcasts. Everything seemed to be setup properly in my Google Podcast Manager and my Anchor feed was active and served, but still no luck.
I learned about this tool run by Google called PubSubHubBub (LOL, for real that's the name) that force refreshes your podcast feed. The tool can be found at this address: https://pubsubhubbub.appspot.com/publish
I pasted my podcast RSS feed into that first “Topic URL” field at the top, and then hit “Publish”, and my latest episode appeared on Google Podcast within seconds.
Hope that helps the next podcaster who comes across this post!